mgr Henryk Toczek

Uniwersytet Morski
Wydział Mechaniczny, Katedra Fizyki
ul. Morska 81-87, pok. C109/C118
81-225 Gdynia
tel.: (+48 58) 55 86 384

Artykuły w wydawnictwach cyklicznych

Haule K., Toczek H., 2014. Optical properties of crude oil detected in seawater. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 127-132.

The effects of crude oils entering marine environment have been investigated since early 1960s when oil pollution became a subject of global environmental concern. Extraction and transportation of crude oils have been contributing to water pollution especially in closed water basins, such as the Baltic Sea. It was estimated that yearly oil input to the Baltic Sea amounts to 21-70 thousands of tons, which is twice higher than in the North Sea and three times higher man in the North Atlantic. Growing pollution loads into the Baltic Sea created a demand for multifarious studies on :he environmental effects of oil products. In this study, we focus on bio-optical and ecological aspects of the presence ."'crude oil in seawater. Dispersed oil droplets occur in seawater as the result of contaminated river inflows, bilge water discharges and as the consequence of mechanical and chemical dispersion of oil spills. Their optical properties depend on oil type, concentration and size distribution. We present further results obtained from the developed fluorescence-based method for determination of the crude oil concentration in natural Baltic seawater and for evaluation of the oil droplets size by applying vacuum filtering. The results have been measured for the samples collected in Southern Baltic Sea during several ship cruises in 2012. We discuss the application of vacuum filtering in the fluorescence analyses in the context of laboratory, in situ andremote detection of dispersed oil.

Haule K., Toczek H., 2014. Fluorescence properties of mechanically dispersed crude oil. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 161-167.

Despite of numerous actions undertook by the global and local authorities towards protection of marine environment, oil pollution loads into the Baltic Sea still tend to increase and need to be continuously estimated in order to apply the legal regulations. There is a demand for multifarious studies on the environmental effects of oil products. Dispersed oil droplets occur in seawater as the result of contaminated river inflows, bilge water discharges and as the consequence of mechanical and chemical dispersion of oil spills. Their optical properties depend on oil type concentration and size distribution. Oil content influences many environmental factors, like water quality and bio-optical parameters (e.g. water-leaving radiance, inherent optical properties, seawater fluorescence).
We present a unique study of the collected database of crude oil fluorescence spectra for better understanding the correlations between oil optical properties and its concentration, as well as for evaluation of the oil droplets size by the application of vacuum filtering using three filters of different permeability. Fluorescence spectra have been registered for oil-in-water emulsion samples prepared in the laboratory by mechanical dispersion. We discuss the optical properties of crude oil and the relationships between them in the context of potential remote detection of dispersed oil in seawater.

Rudź K., Toczek H., 2013. Estimation of emulsified and dissolved oil content in seawater.Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp. 287-293.

The demand to control the amount of oil discharged to the seawater is the consequence of increasing shipping activities. Oil products enter marine environment on daily basis in the form of fuels, engine oils or crude oils. Each of them have a significant impact on marine life and the coastal water management. Oil content influences many environmental factors, like water quality and bio-optical parameters (e.g. water-leaving radiance, inherent optical properties, seawater fluorescence). It should be measured on regular basis to avoid over or underestimation of those parameters. Currently there are several methods used to estimate the total hydrocarbon content in seawater, mostly based on fluorescence measurements. We present a unique method suitable to determine the concentration of oil products in two forms: the amount of dissolved oil and the amount of oil-in-water emulsion. The method consist of several steps: seawater sampling, vacuum filtering, extracting of oil in n-hexane, fluorescence measurements and calculation of oil concentration in comparison to the reference samples, i.e. the solutions of different types of crude oil in n-hexane. The results have been measured for the samples collected in Southern Baltic Sea during several ship cruises in 2012. We discuss the advantages and disadvantages of presented method in the context of radiative transfer modelling and potential remote detection of dispersed oil.

Baszanowska E., Otremba Z., Toczek H., Rohde P., 2013. Fluorescence spectra of oil after it contacts with aquatic environment. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 29-34.

The main task for natural marine environment protection is to prevent the inflow of various contaminants including oil substances and the real challenge is the ability to rapidly detect these pollutants. Moreover important is to find the source or the maker of the oil spill. In this paper we consider fundamental physical aspects in the area of possibility of monitoring the natural marine ecosystem based on fluorescence spectroscopy. We utilize the fluorescence ability of numerous oil components - mainly polycyclic hydrocarbons. The paper concerns the spectrofluorimetric characterization of oils have been in use during exploitation of the marine fleet, i.e. lubricate oil, fuels, transformer and hydraulic oils as well as crude oils or their residues. Every kind of oil has a chance to enter the marine environment, especially in a case of ship emergency or after collision with other vessel ore shoreline structure as well as when ship enters the stranding. After discharge of oil some of oil components are dissolved in the water, some are degraded by bacteria or photochemical reactions which results in transformation of composition of oil.

Fluorescence spectrometer Perkin Elmer LS55 was applied to obtain the fluorescence spectra using different excitation wavelength in the range from 240 nm to 500 nm. We discuss the changes of the shapes of excitation-emission spectra (EEMs) of various types of oil and the EEMs spectra after contact of oil with seawater as an oil-in-water emulsion which is the most frequent form of oil in the water column. Significant changes in the shape of spectra and displacement of the peaks are observed.

Rudź K., Darecki M., Toczek H., 2012. Modelling of seawater polluted by light and heavy crude oil droplets. Journal of KONES Powertrain and Transport, Warsaw, Poland, Vol. 19, No. 2, 473-480.

Significant amounts of crude oil transported from offshore fields to the refineries using tankers or pipelines, demand increased control of seawater pollution. Tanker accidents resulting in oil spills drive much attention, as they influence local marine life and coastal industry. However, the most significant annual amount of crude oil enters the sea in the form of oilin-water emulsion as a result of standard tanker operations, offshore oil extraction and daily work of refineries. Many branches of science are challenged to provide new methods for oil detection, less expensive, more sensitive and more accurate. Remote satellite or airborne detection of large oil spills is possible using joint techniques as microwave radars, ultraviolet laser fluorosensors and infrared radars. Some methods are capable to deal with oil streaks detection and estimation of oil thickness. Although there is currently, no method to detect small concentration of oil droplets dispersed in seawater. Oil droplets become additional absorbents and attenuators in water body. They significantly change seawater inherent optical properties, which imply the change of apparent optical properties, detectable using remote sensing techniques. To enable remote optical detection of oil-in-water emulsion, a study of optical properties of two types of crude oil was conducted. Radiative transfer theory was applied to quantify the contribution of oil emulsion to remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Spectra of Rrs from in situ measurements in Baltic Sea were compared to Rrs spectra of seawater polluted by 1 ppm of crude oil emulsion, collected using radiative transfer simulation. The light crude oil caused a 9-10% increase of Rrs while the heavy one reduced Rrs up to 30% (model accuracy stayed within 5% for considered spectral range). Results are discussed concerning their application to shipboard and offshore oil content detection

Otremba Z., Toczek H., 2011. Optical properties of fuels and lubricants vs. aquatic environment protection issues. JOURNAL OF KONES POWERTRAIN AND TRANSPORT, Warsaw, Poland, Vol. 18, No. 4, 325-330.

Oils can be optically described by two parameters: light absorption coefficient and light refraction coefficient. Spectrum of absorption coefficient manifest itself in color of oil, whereas spectrum of refraction coefficient impacts on both refractive and reflective properties of interface between oil and surroundings. Both spectra of absorption coefficient and refraction coefficient have distinctive slopes in ultraviolet edge of spectrum where values of mentioned coefficients decrease from extremely high in ultraviolet to relatively low in visual range. Possibility of perceiving of oil existing in the form of thin film or in the form of an emulsion depends on ambient light conditions and on mentioned optical properties. Additionally perceiving of oil depends on thickness of the oil film and on type of substrate on which oil is spread (water, metal etc.), as well as - if emulsion oil-in-water or water-in-oil is considered - on the droplets size distribution. The present paper begins with a review of optical properties of several oils. Next, an impact of changes of those properties on optical properties of an oil film (spread on water) as well as an impact of those properties on optical properties of oil-in-water emulsion are explained. Finally, exemplary results of numerical simulation of light transfer in marine environment (using above optical properties) - e.g. angular distributions of optical contrast of both sea areas clean and polluted by an oil-film are presented.

Otremba Z., Baszanowska E., Toczek H., Rohde P., 2011.Spectrofluorymetry in application to oil-in-water emulsion characterization. JOURNAL OF KONES POWERTRAIN AND TRANSPORT, Warsaw, Poland, Vol. 18, No. 3, 317-321.

The question of identifying the type of oil in exploitation of engine room is associated with both the quality of ship consumables (fuels and lubricants) and the composition and origin of oil in settling tanks or in dumping water. Related issue is the possibility of determining the origin of oil, which is detected in the marine environment. The key question is how oils vary in their ability to fluorescence, understood as the shapes of fluorescence spectra obtained for different wavelengths of light exciting fluorescence. In this paper we present spectra of fluorescence for six chosen oils. Those oils were previously dispersed (emulsified) in the seawater, then extracted into hexane. Fluorescence spectra were obtained using fluorescence spectrometer Perkin Elmer LS55, for excitation wavelengths in the range from 240 nm to 500 nm, and emission wavelengths from 300 nm to 790 nm. In this paper there is shown that in general both total intensity of fluorescence and shapes of spectra of fluorescence depend on the excitation wavelength and are differ for various kinds of oil. In order to visually show the differences in fluorescence abilities of various oils, the results of measurement were placed on a chart of fluorescence intensities in the function of both variables: the excitation wavelength and the emission wavelength (so called the total fluorescence spectra). Analyses of results of the described studies confirm that the different oils fluoresce differently and identification of type of oil is possible by fluorescence spectrophotometry.

Toczek H., Otremba Z., 2009. Marine environment self-defense against oil pollution. 6th International Conference: Physicochemical Problems of Natural Waters Ecology; 28-30.05.2008, Szczecin, Poland.

The paper contains a review of issues concerning the oil-refinery-products biodegradation in the sea natural environment in connection with physicochemical interactions between oil and the seawater. Various forms of oil substances are discussed, as well as a role of environmental conditions for degradation of this pollution (including biodegradation). We demonstrate the importance of preconditions for oil degradation, for example: the presence of various types of degrading microorganisms, the influence of light and temperature, the availability of oxygen, biogenes and trace elements. Relationship between a defined sea basin and a rate of biodegradation is revealed also (on the base of our studies developed in the Gdynia Maritime University). In the discussion we present the questions which are still unsolved and we articulate the range of probable cooperation with other institutions.

Stelmaszewski A., Toczek H., 2007. Preliminary Studies of Optical Properties of Oil-Water Emulsion Particles. Physicochemical Problems of Natural Waters Ecology, Vol 5., 33-35.

Comparison of background optical parameters - refractive indexes and light absorption coefficients, which characterize the ensemble of emulsion particles and initial oil was the aim of the work. The ensemble of emulsion particles is clearly distinct from respective petroleum. Refractivity of emulsion particles is higher then that of the oil. Also absorption coefficient of droplet ensemble takes distinctly higher values then the parameter, which characterizes the respective oil.

Boniewicz-Szmyt K., Toczek H., 2006. Zmiany czasowe właściwości fizycznych bałtyckiej ropy naftowej. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Mechanicznego Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, nr 56, 92-99.

W niniejszej pracy przedstawiono zmiany czasowe oraz temperaturowe wybranych właściwości fizycznych surowej ropy naftowej, pobranej z odwiertów platformy "Baltic Beta". Wyniki tych pomiarów pozwoliły na wyznaczenie parametrów opisujących badaną ropę.

Czyż B., Kaniewski E., Otremba Z., Stelmaszewski A., Targowski W., Toczek H., 2005. Weathering of "Petrobaltic" type crude oil: changes of optical properties. Physicochemical Problems of Natural Waters Ecology, Vol. 3, 7-13.

This paper presents results of determinations of selected optical parameters of fresh and artificially weathered Petrobaltic type crude oil. There was detected that during 10 days value of absorptive index increases about 40%, whereas refractive index increases in a small scale. Intensity of fluorescence also increases, but the shape of fluorescence spectra show no significant modification.

Otremba Z., Targowski W., Toczek H., 2003. Fluorescence as a scanning method for oil identification in the sea environment. In.: To Safer Life and Environment, Series: Monographs. Air Force Institute of Technology, No. 3, 293-300. Warsaw.

We analyse the possibility of the use of spectrofluorymetry for identification the type of oil. The automatic comparison oil definite oil with the set of standard oils is described as well as effectiveness of the proposed mathematical procedures based on Principal Component Analysis and software are discussed

Kaniewski E., Otremba Z., Stelmaszewski A., Toczek H., 2003. Badania właściwości optycznych ropy bałtyckiej. Zeszyty Naukowe Wydziału Mechanicznego Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, nr 49, 174-180.

W pracy przedstawiono wstępne wyniki badań właściwości optycznych ropy bałtyckiej w aspekcie jej wykrywania oraz identyfikacji w środowisku morskim. Wyznaczono współczynniki załamania i absorpcji światła dla ropy świeżej i w poszczególnych stadiach jej wietrzenia. Stwierdzono niewielki wzrost wartości współczynnika załamania światła i ponad 30% wzrost pochłaniania światła następujący podczas wietrzenia ropy. Wzrost ten jest szybki w początkowej fazie wietrzenia, później szybkość zmian maleje.


Otremba Z. (koordynator), Czyż B., Kaniewski E., Stelmaszewski A., Targowski W., Toczek H., Zieliński A., 1999. Spektrofluorymetryczna metoda detekcji i identyfikacji substancji ropopochodnych w wodzie morskiej i statkowych wodach zrzutowych.
Umowa Nr TT2-14-SP/99 zawarta pomiedzy Departamentem Administracji Morskiej i Śródlądowej Ministerstwa Transportu i Gospodarki Morskiej a Wyższą Szkołą Morską w Gdyni

Celem opracowania było określenie założeń metodycznych na rzecz zadań związanych z kontrolą stanu zaolejenia na polskich obszarach morskich. Zgodnie z tematem zadania założenia te odnoszą się do dwóch tematyk:
  • prowadzenie badań stopnia zaolejenia w strefie brzegowej na polskich obszarach morskich w oparciu o analizy chemiczne techniką fluorymetryczną;
  • prowadzenie badań pochodzenia wysokostężeniowych zaolejeń w portach i strefie brzegowej na polskich obszarach morskich w oparciu o technikę fluorymetrii trójwymiarowej.

    Otremba Z., Toczek H., 1998, Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie biodegradowalności filmów olejowych.
    Raport z pracy 18/BW/GU/98, Wyższa Szkoła Morska w Gdyni, 1998
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